חומר קריאה מומלץ לפסח.

 

לחובבי היסטוריה בוודאי יהיה מעניין לדעת על איך נוצרו בעולם שפות מודרניות. נתקלתי היום במאמר ארוך ברוסית, כנראה מאת מומחה לשפות, ונתגלו לי כמה פרטים חדשים ומעניינים. כמובן אין כאן מישהו שמבין את הרוסית, אז העברתי את הטקסט שאני מגיש לתרגום אוטומטי לאנגלית בתקוה שכמה יודעי אנגלית יבינו את רוח המאמר ויעריכו בהתאם:

Almost all of the "national" languages ​​were formed in the 19th century
Until the 19th century in most European countries their "tongues" were almost in every town and village. When nation states were formed in its present form, there is a need to organize, and language issues ...

 

When and how to create a national language?

Author - Igor Greek

Today's so-called nation-states formed for the most part in the 19th century, due to the rapid development of ground-based communication, especially rail transport. Accordingly, there was a need for unification and writing as an important communication tool for managing large areas. Given below links and quotes are taken from the magazine statin.livejournal.com:

When you create a German. Hohdoych. The written form of standard German (hohdoych) was established at the II spelling conference held in Berlin from 17 to 19 July 1901. The desire to create a unified German language is particularly clearly manifested after the creation of the German Empire in 1871. In 1876, at the initiative of the Prussian Minister of Culture Aldaberka Falk was called I orthographic conference, which took place "negotiations towards greater harmony in spelling." However, a single spelling of the Reich then failed to agree.

Almost all of the "national" languages ​​were formed in the 19th century

Lower German. Lower German (Plattdeutsch or Niederdeutsch) language now widespread only in some areas of northern Germany and north-eastern Netherlands. It differs significantly from hohdoycha (the official language of Germany) and the Upper German dialects. This is essentially different languages. But still lower German shows great similarity to the English and Dutch, indicating their common origin.

To date, the lower German lost its importance. In the Middle Ages as he dominated in the Baltic Sea region, where he served as the lingua franca there. Was an important literary language. He, along with Latin, was used for the preparation of commercial and legal documents. On it were written theological books. There are several ancient translations of the Bible into that language.

When the Dutch created. In medieval Netherlands reigned linguistic diversity. In every town, village and even speak their own language. Dialects can be divided into five major groups: Flemish, brabandskie, gollandish, limburskie and Lower Saxony. Attempts were made to standardize the language as early as the 16th century in Brabant. However, for various reasons, they were unsuccessful. Managed to create a common language in the 17th century. In the future, the actual Dutch and Belgian Dutch language versions of the standard significantly diverged. This happened because of Belgium until the 20th century the Dutch had no official status. The language of administration there served the French.

When created Swedish. Until recently, the Kingdom of Sweden was not the state language. Only in 2008, Parliament passed a bill, put on a Swedish official status. However, by the time the Swedish language for a long time was the main language in the kingdom. On the role of advanced Swedish in Sweden started out in the late 19th century. First in the country dominated by other languages. Since the 18th century, the language of the upper classes became French. King Gustav III (1771-1792) was a true Francophile, and French was spoken mainly in his court. And in 1818 the throne under the name of Charles IV ascended general John French Marshal Bernadotte. Before the 17th century, the popularity enjoyed lower German, which was a commercial language and lingua franca in the Hanseatic trade union. The language of the Catholic Church was Latin. On it and wrote their works scientists. In particular, it was Carl Linnaeus in Latin published his most famous work. Apparently, the important role played in medieval Sweden and Russian.

When you create a Norwegian. In the mid-19th century, a young self-taught linguist Ivar Aasen began to establish itself in Norwegian. He traveled all over the country, comparing local dialects studied Icelandic language. As a result, in 1848, he presented a new written language - "landsmol" ("rural language"). The main feature of this language was that from it as much as possible, were excluded from the Danish word and lower German. They are replaced by synonyms, supposedly inherited from the "Old Norse". In 1885, "landsmol" adopted as the official written language, along with the Norwegian version of the Danish.

At the same time, Knud Knudsen proposed to bring the Norwegian-Danish spelling to popular pronunciation. For example, replace the letter "C" and «q» on «f». (Later, the letter "p", "m" and "k" was proposed to replace the "b", "d" and "d"). Thus was born the new written language, with a light hand Bjørnstjerne Bjornson called "riksmol." In 1892 spelling reform were officially enshrined in law.

Almost all of the "national" languages ​​were formed in the 19th century

When created in English. In principle, the English language is not much different from most other Western European languages. In the sense that the same is remakes, as they are. It should be said at once: up to 1733 the official language of the English state was Latin. In the 17-18 centuries went intensive growth vocabulary. Borrowed from many languages. Most of Latin. The creation of the English language was completed in 1755, when Samuel Johnson published his Dictionary. The largest contribution to the English language by introducing into it more than three thousand new words introduced W. Shakespeare.

When created in English. Part 2 (Dictionary of Samuel Johnson)

When created Polish. There is no evidence of the existence of the Polish language until the 16th century. Except for a couple of books with the prayers of dubious origin and even more doubtful dated. About this period among scientists speak only as of the "period of the origins of the literary language." Polish suddenly appears in the 16th century, right after the merger between Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. And then he begins his "golden age". And the Polish indistinguishable from the Russian language the same time. It is believed that the Latin language was a government in Poland, according to some estimates, up to the end of the so-called "Saxon period" - 1783, and, according to other sources, until 1795.

The first attempt to create the Bulgarian language. "Since the mid-30s of the XIX century. Bulgarian society seizes the idea of ​​creating a unified nation for normalized literary language, develop a "common grammar for the whole of Bulgaria," which everyone should follow in his writings. " This idea was first clearly formulated in the neophyte Rylsky "Philology advance notice" to his "Bulgarian grammar" (1835), containing the theoretical basis for the author offers practical solutions to establish norms of the literary language of modern times.

"The well-known tour Transdanubia land taken in the 1830-1831 biennium. YI Venelin on the instructions of the Russian Academy, in order to, inter alia, in-depth sessions Bulgarian language and its grammar creation, comes at a time of serious changes in the historical, cultural and literary-linguistic situation in Bulgaria related to the progressive development of social thought in the course of the Bulgarian National Revival. " EI Demin "On the first experiment, the codification of the Bulgarian literary language of the Renaissance. Concept YI Venelin)

The first Bulgarian revivalist. The cell is heard from the monastery and the first cry in the spirit of the new European trends - call for a national awakening and enlightenment, for the protection of the native language, the native way of life. It was a call priesthood Paisija proigumena Hilandar. "Tee Bulgarian not prelaschaї behold, know your rod ¯ ıazіk ѹchi and behold in its ıazikѹ" - he argued in his "History slavѣnobolgarskoy", as over them Zografski monastery in 1762. He intended it to those ottserugatelyam, "Koi no lyubat your rod and ıazik" as well as "vam, koї revnѹete nobility and slishati for svoї rod ¯ ıazik napїsah let you know."

When established the Serbian language. Back in the early 19th century the official language in Serbia was church-Slavic. Moreover, the Russian variant. Literature in the first half of the 18- 19th centuries was the so-called Slavic-Serbian language. Occasionally it is called Slovene. Not to be confused with another Slovenian language, now the official language of the Republic of Slovenia.

About Romania and Romanian. In the 19th century self, for the sake of prestige, slightly corrected to "romyn» (român). So "castle" turned into "Romans". Then the script was translated into Latin alphabet. In the second half of the 19th century, after independence, when Romania and Moldavia were united state, held a major language reform. All Slavic, German, Turkish and others. Italian words replaced. More accurate to say, Romanians fully loggerheads for himself in Italian, which in Italy has only just started to go to the forefront, with all its rules. As a result, now the Italians Romanians can understand without an interpreter ...

When created Bashkir language. Modern literary Bashkir language arose after the October Revolution, on the basis of concentration and kuvakanskogo yurmatinskogo dialects. Prior to that, Bashkirs used Tatar literary language, which was originally developed Bashkir literature. Bashkirs used the Arabic alphabet, with 1928-29 - Latin and from 1939 - Russian ... "

When established the Lithuanian language (Part 1). For a long time the Lithuanian language was considered prestigious enough for use in writing. Common language did not exist. Language differences were significant between regions. There aushtaytskie and Samogitian dialects (or separate languages) and their numerous dialects. There were expectations that the Lithuanian language is about to become extinct in the territory of present-day Lithuania. Many people enjoy the Polish and Belarusian language in everyday life. At the beginning of the 19th century, the use of the Lithuanian language is largely confined to the Lithuanian rural areas.

When established the Lithuanian language (Part 2)

When established the Lithuanian language. Part 3 (start)

When established the Lithuanian language. Part 3 (continued)

When established the Lithuanian language. Part 3 (the end)

When established the Turkish language, how to create the Turkish language. Until 1839 in the Ottoman Empire, the predecessor of modern Turkey, the official language was not. Great Porte was multinational and multilingual state. A mixture of Turkish folk dialects, Arabic and Persian, the so-called Ottoman language in 1839, during tranzimata (political reform) was declared the state. In 1851, historian Ahmed Dzhevlet Pasha and the Grand Vizier Mehmed future Fuat Pasha published the first grammar of the Ottoman language.

Almost all of the "national" languages ​​were formed in the 19th century

Throughout the second half of the 19th and early 20th century in the Ottoman Empire were seething passion about improving the language. (I recall the mid-19th century, the official language of the Ottoman Empire was a language consisting 70-80, and on separate estimates for the full 90 per cent of borrowings from Arabic and Persian.) To end the dispute in republican Turkey language reform in 1928, after which was created, in fact, an entirely new Turkish.

When created in Greek? There are European states of Greece. Appeared on the political map of it in the first half of the XIX century, having broken away from the Ottoman Empire. Greece was created with the help of the military the UK and France, with the connivance of the Russian Emperor Nicholas I.

Separatist sentiment Greek intellectuals, based, as happens in such cases, abroad, has long dreamed of their own independent country. The basis of the new state, they were supposed to be the Orthodox faith and Greek. If faith like everything was in order, the language had yet to invent.

Believe it or not, but at the turn of the 18-19th centuries the Greeks did not have a single national language in which you would write the Constitution and other laws, to keep records. The Turkish language understood by all Greeks, used for this purpose did not seem solid. Many Greeks from the common people never knew the Greek language.

How to create Greek (Part 1). Dispute, how to be the language of the independent Greek state (if not yet created) first broke out in the late 18th century. At that time, the language issue in Greece chaos reigned. There were many languages. They are divided into "colloquial", vary from region to region, and "archaic", that is old. Moreover, some of the old language "Greek" and a "srednegrechesky" (Byzantine), and what language to what is happening, the Greeks themselves did not know. This will tell them later "father of Greek Linguistics" George Hattsidakis (1843-1941). All these languages ​​exist simultaneously. Cultivated in different circles and schools, and were not "scientifically studied."

Compromise solution proposed Adamantios Korais, create a new language, with a light hand Nicephorus Theotokis called "kafaverusa" (purified). First term Theotokis mentioned in one of his works in 1796. Common name was the mid-19th century. Modern linguists politically correct to call "semi-synthetic".

How to create Greek (Part 2)

How to create Greek (Part 3)

How to create Greek. Part 4 (Adamantios Korais and Kafaverusa)

How to create Greek. Part 5 (hope in the resurrection of the ancient Greek)

How to create Greek. Part 6 (drift to the archaic and the Olympic Games)

When you create a Hebrew. Itzhak Perlman Eliezer (real name - Ben-Yehuda) was born in the Russian Empire, the territory of modern Vitebsk region Belarus. Parents Ben Yehuda dreamed that he would become a rabbi, and therefore helped get him a good education. In his youth Eliezer the ideas of Zionism and in 1881 emigrated to Palestine. Here Ben Yehuda came to the conclusion that only the Hebrew may revive and return it to the "historical homeland." Under the influence of his ideals, he decided to develop a new language that could replace Yiddish and other regional dialects as a means of everyday communication between Jews.

Along with the introduction of Hebrew, was a campaign to discredit the Yiddish language. Yiddish was declared the "jargon" and "non-kosher". In 1913, one of the writers said: "speak Yiddish even less kosher than eat pork." Apex confrontation Hebrew and Yiddish became in 1913 the outbreak of the so-called "war of languages".

When established the Hungarian language. At the end of the 18th century suddenly awakened Hungarian intelligentsia. Awakened her Georg Besseney (Bessenyei György). In 1765, he appeared at the court of Empress Maria Theresa in the composition of the newly established Hungarian squad of bodyguards. Here he became interested in reading masterpieces of French literature. He involuntarily drew a parallel between the western and Hungarian culture. And experienced the pain and shame. After all, no national culture, the Hungarians did not exist. In fact, they have not been, and its language. Aristocracy spoke and wrote in French and German. The middle class - in Latin. Latin was the official language in Hungary and in the Holy Roman Empire, of which it is. The Hungarian language is used rarely and mainly in the villages.

East - it is dark or when you create the Azerbaijani language. Someone can explain why until 1956 the Azerbaijani language was not used in Azerbaijan in state institutions and was not familiar even to the Azerbaijanis?

East is dark or when created in Hindi and Urdu. After the fall of the Mughal Empire in 1837, power passed to the British East India Company. Along with the British, the British declared an official language "Urdu". This is the same Persian language with a large number of borrowings from the many local languages ​​and dialects. Separation "Urdu" (Horde) and "hindi" (Indian) began in 1867.

When the British government, in favor of the Hindu community in some northwestern provinces (now Uttar Pradesh and Bihar) Change the writing language "Urdu" from the local Persian "Devanagari". Soon Hindus demanded that "Hindi" replaced "Urdu" as an official throughout the country.

In 1900, the British government issued a decree formally equalizing the rights of "Hindi" and "Urdu". After that, the language controversy arose anew. Languages ​​began to diverge linguistically. Until that moment, they are essentially the same language, differing only writing. Hindus began diligently cleaning out "Hindi" from the Persian words replacing their counterparts from Sanskrit.

A Brief History of Sanskrit. By 1773 the British finally captured India, out of the way of all the competitors. India received the official status of the colony, and in this event the British were prepared as follows - ten years later, in 1783-m held a grand opening of the ancient and mysterious Indian culture, Sanskrit, and found the first printed all the major literary works of the Hindus.

Where Are? When?

ממליץ בהקשר הזה על ספרו של הוגה הדיעות הצרפתי הנודע, ז'אן ז'אק רוסו, ועל ספרו הקצר "מסה על מוצא הלשונות" (הוצאת רסלינג).

רוסו מאוד אהב לבחון את ראשתם של דברים ובחינת האדם במצבו הטבעי; ידועה למשל האמירה שלו בדבר השלב בו נוצרה החברה האזרחית: "הראשון שגידר לו חלקת אדמה והעלה בדעתו לומר: זאת לי היא, ואף מצא סביבו אנשים תמימים דיים להאמין לו, היה מייסדה האמיתי של החברה האזרחית"

[ז'אן ז'אק רוסו "המאמר על מקורות אי השוויון בין בני אדם", מתוך:מאמרים (ירושלים: מאגנס תשנ"ג),  עמ' 161].

 ADIR A. BENYAMINI
 Attorney at Law


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